Potassium permanganate is used to remove arsenic (As) in ground water treatment systems that employ filtration. Permanganate oxidizes arsenic to a form that can adsorb to insoluble precipitates such as hydrous manganese hydroxides or ferric hydroxide. The precipitates are then removed from the water supply in the clarification and filtration processes. Permanganate can also be used for arsenic removal in surface water plants that have filtration.
Factors that affect removal efficiency include water chemistry, pH, temperature, contact time, and application point. Reaction times are rapid under normal conditions of temperature and pH. However, temperatures <35º F, and pH values <5.5 require reaction times longer than two minutes. In most cases, 5 to 10 minutes of reaction time is sufficient.
It has been demonstrated that the presence or addition of iron (Fe 2+) removal. A ratio of Fe to As of 20:1 is recommended.
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